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 seeks to foster a renewed interest in home culinary arts among experienced home cooks

The Geezer Gourmet(go here for brief biography) caters to clientele who have life-long experiences in home cooking and now, as empty nesters
and retirees, have the time to renew their love of good food and its preparation.  The Geezer Gourmet assumes that you routinely cook for one
or two people; eat out quite often; still like to entertain and are experienced at it; have adequately equipped kitchens; and enjoy life and good health.

If you have some of the above attributes but are not a geezer nor even approaching pre-geezerhood, thank your parents for that, press on regardless, and welcome.

                         This is not a Web site for food phobic's or wellness hypochondriacs

Plain Base Sorbet Syrup

I've been making Sorbet with the Lello Lussino 4080 Dessert Maker (see below).
As with the base gelato recipe, trial and error win the day.

Here is my revised revised Plain Base Sorbet Syrup recipe:
400g sugar
400g water
20g tapioca starch
55g light corn syrup
1. Mix sugar and tapioca
2. Mix water and corn syrup
3. Combine both and mix well
4. Cook over medium high heat stirring constantly until mixture thickens and comes to boil
5. Cool, then refrigerate
1. As a general rule, five parts syrup to four parts fruit product creates a fruit-dominent sorbet
2. It takes twice as long to make sorbet than gelato--about 30 minutes.


Blood Orange Sorbet
500g of plain base sorbet syrup
About 9 Blood oranges juiced and the zest from one orange
2 lemons juiced and the zest from both
1. Make base sorbet syrup and refrigerate
2. Squeeze oranges, lemons, add zest and refrigerate
3. Once chilled (about 40F or about 8 hours), combine and mix 500g syrup and 400g orange juice
4. Add to machine and process until done, about 30 minutes

Sorry bout that

Been side tracked for two months but I'm back ...
In the interval:
Ordered a fine new santoku knife from Chubo in Japan only to receive the wrong knife due to a barcode switch at Chubo. It got worse: the knife I ordered is out of stock. So, I'm now waiting weeks for my knife and a return label for their knife. Sigh . . .

Got a new washer and dryer, despite having the old ones for only 33 years. Not too surprised that washer and dryer design has improved over three decades. These units (Maytag) have more settings than my car. Even a steam cycle. Performance is remarkably better. Four chef's jackets came out super white and wrinkle free. That would have been nice back in the day when I washed and ironed three a week.

The real news is that after much research I've ordered a Musui-Kamado by Vermicular. Vermicular is a Japanese family forgery that has been in business for generations. For the last five years or so, they have been making cast iron cooking pots for the local market--high quality precisely machined Dutch ovens. Most recently, they paired their Dutch oven with an induction cooker cradle and added sophisticated timing and heating options. Vermicular is now marketing it in the US. Reviews are mixed and I'm not sure it's worth the price but I love cast iron, use my Dutch ovens frequently and I want to experience induction heating. I've resisted buying a slow cooker for decades, maybe this is the one. We'll see.

Well it arrived. Unpacking the boxed musui (Dutch oven) and boxed kamado (induction cooker) within the shipping box was almost sensuous. Beautifully folded cardboard, creased and tucked, each unit was securely packaged for the long journey from Japan to California to Virginia. (Apple product packaging came to mind.) Included with the units are two clear plastic graded beakers for rice and water (they're serious about rice), a beautiful but limited cookbook with 70 dedicated recipes, a cute cast iron table-top cradle for the lid and an instruction manual. It took careful reading to figure out and rationalize the setting options, which are presented on a single control panel attached to the kamado. Right off, I braised a double pork chop. After searing the chop in the musui at 'Med' (450F), I set the temp to 'Low' (300F) for one hour, poured in a little broth, threw in some small potatoes, some peeled shallots and a generous dusting of herbes de Provence. All came out fine but no better or worse than the countless Dutch oven 'd chops before (see below). Next time, I'll set the temp to 'ExLow' (230F) for 1.5 hours and see what happens. All this suggests that this cooker features precise temperature settings--so I tested them. Dry temperatures on the pot surface run very high (560F infra-red for Med) but then fall into the setting with oil or broth added and temp measured. It's notable that only the 'Warm' setting is adjustable (from 90F to 200F). This is weird but not arbitrary. The Warm setting is, inter alia, for sous vide cooking. So, anticipating the future need to Pasteurize some eggs, I set the temp to 135F, added some water and waited 5 minutes for it to warm up. Water temp was spot on! Which means you can Pasteurize eggs in this thing the next time you make a Caesar Salad.
This cooker reeks of quality and performance. One reviewer called it the Rolls-Royce of Dutch ovens. For a cook and car buff, the better analogy would be the Bentley of Dutch ovens. The Vermicular people back it up with a three year warranty (where have you seen that lately?). It's not your mom's Lodge Dutch oven nor your old Crock Pot nor your friend's All-Clad Gourmet Slow Cooker. But is it a better Dutch oven -- yes, thoughtful modern design and hand milled but at a high price; a better crock pot -- yes by far and more versatile but it doesn't have a programmed timer; better than the All-Clad -- no, but it's more compact, not bulky, obviously better made and will out last it. Despite the price of $300, the Musui Dutch oven is a good seller in Japan, at least good enough to embolden the Vermicular people to create and market the Musui-Kamado in Japan and now in the US for a whopping $670. Wow!

Still, I like the power and precision of the 2000 watt induction heater, the thoughtfulness that has gone into the whole thing and above all its fit and finish. I use Dutch ovens a lot and have recipes for them on this blog. Last week, I donated two of my four Le Creuset Dutch ovens in anticipation of relying on the Musui-Kamado. I'm looking forward to cooking with this elegant pot. Stay tuned for recipes.

So last night, I picked up on the idea that the double pork chop done in the Vermicular at 300F might turn out more tender at the 230F setting. Two seasoned skinless chicken thighs were seared in EVOO at 440F in the Vermicular and then cooked with a little more oil at the 230F setting for 70 minutes. I opened the pot and the thighs were done with a temp of 170F. At this juncture I dumped in a half a bag of Trader Joe's Japanese Style Fried Rice, which I stock, and cooked the whole mess for another 20 minutes. The thighs came out falling off the bone tender and moist--'pulled chicken thighs.' The thighs in the photo are well camouflaged with the rice, which also came out fine. So, I'll argue that the Vermicular people need another chapter in their cookbook entitled "Low and Slow." Further proof came yesterday when I did another double pork chop at 230F. It came out more tender and moist with the bone more easily removed. What lies ahead? Two five bone racks of pork ribs or beef short ribs will do great in this pot at the low temperature setting. The Musui Kamado maybe my pot of choice for low and slow!


Industrial Art Tools for Eating

I've had a thing about common objects that are designed and executed at such a high creative level and with such skill that they rise to the level of industrial art. An excellent example are these forged titanium chopsticks by Jon Christensen. They are hand hammered, twisted and textured--no two are alike. They are very comfortable in the hand and quite light since they're made of titanium. The tips are matte finished to hold food better. There is nothing common about these common objects. They are the very definition of beauty and function; I had to have them. I use chopsticks often for cooking, food placement and for eating hearty shrimp noodle soups and other Asian dishes.
They can be found at, when in stock.


An Ancient Product

The Netflix documentary "Salt Fat Acid Heat" with Samin Nosrat follows the theme of her outstanding cookbook, reviewed below. In the first episode, Nosrat visits a site on the tiny island of Kami-Kamagari located near Hiroshima, Japan. There in 1984 archeologists discovered a salt making pot dating back to the 3rd century. Intrigued, some islanders set about to re-produce the earliest known sea salt using methods from centuries past. A company, Kamagari Bussan, was established 1998. Even using more modern methods of production, only 440 pounds of Amabito-No-Moshio is produced each year. The process involves evaporating sea water, drying seaweed on the beach, infusing the water with the seaweed and then cooking the salt mass in large pots over an open fire.

Salt is salt; it's just sodium chloride. But the saltiness of the crystals varies greatly, so too their size, touch and feel (read the book). This salt has a beige color and a bright saltiness with notes of minerals, which are said to include calcium, potassium and magnesium. What is truly unique about Moshio is its fine grain--almost ash-like. Indeed Moshio is sometimes referred to as salt-ash. I really like it. Indeed over the last few months it has been my quick-draw salt.

I've been into salt and its various shapes and intensities for decades. Of the four salts I use, Maldon and smoked have large flake crystals that are less intense--both great for salads and for garnishing. Morton Sea Salt in fine grain and quite intense for everyday seasoning. Mushio is very fine grain and very intense--for fish, shellfish and meat, Not for salads. Where Mushio is really brilliant is on popcorn, best salt ever Period! (BTW, popcorn too goes back a few thousand years.)

Morton, Maldon and smoked salts are readily available. Mushio can be found on the Internet at and other sites abroad.


A James Beard Award Cookbook and a Netflix Docuseries

Just watched the Netflix four part documentary series featuring the author and her book. Both educational as well as entertaining. Samin Nosrat comes off as a great personality, insightful culinary analyst and a good cook. Thus armed with the delightful TV series, I looked forward reading the book. I was not disappointed. . .

This is the best primer cookbook since The Food Lab by J. Kenjiopez-Alt, published in 2015 and reviewed here. Both books won James Beard Award recognition. Nosrat's magnum opus is less comprehensive but more approachable. Her thesis is captured in the title and her genius in the sub title "Mastering the Elements of Good Cooking." A not so subtle take on Julia Child's "Mastering The Art of French Cooking." If you can master the use of salt, fat and acid and how to heat them--you can cook. Simple as that, says Nosrat, and not too far off, says I. My mantra for decades has been that cooking is all about hard work and salt. This book endorsed that view.

The opening chapter on salt is the best analysis of that subject I"ve ever read. Indeed, read it twice! The other chapters on fat, acid and heat are thorough and well thought out. Strengthening the text and making the whole tome pop are the numerous, colorful and whimsical tables, graphs, illustrations and fold-outs. The recipes, while not great in number, are well chosen and supportive of her views on salt, fat and acid.

Reading this thing cover to cover left me with the view that Samin Nostrat has created a significant contribution to the culinary literature and a cookbook that will endure. Forty years ago, I was blown away by James Beard's Theory and Practice of Good Cooking. I still refer to it and it is still in print. I think this book will enjoy long years of readership. And Samin Nostrat may well earn a place in the pantheon of great teaching chefs.

It's that good a book and she's that good an analyst/chef.


What to do With a Double Thick Pork Chop--Two Ideas

Intuitively you know it has to be done 'low and slow.' But on the grill or in a pan, it's going to char up and dry out before it ever gets done inside.
So, moist heat is the way to go and that's called braising.
And that calls for a Dutch oven or the slow cooker, which it so popular today.
Here's how:
1. Trim off any excess fat. Season the chop with salt and pepper or a favorite spice that compliments pork
(I used a Spice House spice called Milwaukee Iron, which is a Southwest flavored concoction.)
2. Brown the chop aggressively in a small pan.
3. Place the chop in a Dutch oven and pour in chicken broth to a level about half way up the chop (no higher)..
4. Bring the chop and broth to boil on the stove top and then cover and braise in a 325F oven for two hours, or set the slow cooker to 325F and two hours.
5. Meanwhile, prep and season with S/P a few whole shallots and a potato-skin on.
6. At the one hour mark, place the shallots and potato chunks into the pot.
7. At the two hour mark, fork test for doneness and tenderness (If the chop you bought is high quality, it should be tender now.)
8. Remove the chop and veggies to a warm place.
9. In the Dutch oven or in a heavy sauce pan, bring the braising liquid to boil and reduce to sauce thickness.
10. Serve all on a heated plate with the sauce over the veggies and a little on top of the chop.
Here's another idea:

Using the same procedures as above, we have:
1. Trim off any excess fat. Season the chop liberally with salt and pepper
2. Brown the chop aggressively in a small pan.
3. Place the chop in a Dutch oven and pour in chicken broth to a level about half way up the chop (no higher).
4. Add two star anise--don't crush, just drop them in
5. Bring the chop and broth to boil on the stove top and then cover and braise in a 325F oven for two hours, or set the slow cooker to 325F and two hours.
6. Meanwhile, dice up a fresh pineapple
7. At the one hour mark, remove the star anise and place pineapple chunks into the pot.
8. At the two hour mark, fork test for doneness and tenderness (If the chop you bought is high quality, it should be tender now.)
9. Remove the chop and pineapple to a warm place.
10. In the Dutch oven or in a heavy sauce pan, bring the braising liquid to boil and reduce to sauce thickness.
11. Serve all on a heated plate with the sauce over the pineapple and a little on top of the chop.

A New Thermapen

My old gray Thermapen, by, is getting unreliable after about twenty years so I got a new one. They still cost $99 and remain the best thermometer on the market. Included in their user's guide is a very good table of temperatures. Good because it acknowledges that USDA temps are high and not followed in most professional kitchens, especially when cooking beef, veal and lamb. However, USDA's target temperature of 160-165F is followed in the preparation of ground meat, poultry and egg products.


An Ergonomically Correct Ice Cream Scoop For Geezers

Called The Midnight Scoop, it is designed to be held at the end of the curved handle, enabling the palm of the hand, with the wrist straight, to scoop ice cream by pushing it out.
It takes a little practice but the palm/elbow push motion is stronger, if not more efficient, than the wrist twist motion especially against hard ice cream. The inventor boasts that he spent countless midnights fiddling with countless redesigns and prototypes--hence the name.
It's a very good tool, beautifully made, indestructible, but pricey at $35 at Amazon. It fits right in with all the gelato I'm making and writing about here these days.

Crab Cakes over Spinach Fettuccini With Your Best EVOO

Crab meat is always in stock here for crab cakes, which I prepare about once a month using my tried and true recipe.
This time, instead of going the same old veggie base and remoulade route, I boiled up fresh store-bought spinach fettuccini, drained it, tossed it in some EVOO, plated it and set it aside in the warming oven.
Then two crab cakes were sauteed. When done, the crab cakes were placed onto the fettuccini, a little salt and pepper were added and then the cakes and fettuccini were drizzled with my best quality EVOO (not cooking EVOO).
This is a simple presentation that works very well since, as I just now discovered, pasta, crab cakes and high quality EVOO are flavor pals. (Note how the pasta shines with the just drizzled EVOO.)
One could substitute clarified butter but I much prefer olive oil.


I Finally Got A Self-Cooling Ice Cream/Gelato Machine

Over the years, I've had a couple ice cream makers. They both required freezing the make bowl in the freezer prior to making ice cream.
They worked but never seemed to get the base cold enough and they were good for only one batch.

Then along comes Breville with a new self cooling "Smart Scoop" ice cream maker that renewed my interest in making the stuff at home again.
After much research, I opted for the Lello Lussino 4080 Dessert Maker. The reviews are good for both machines, but more favorable for the Lello as more rugged, with a steel dasher (paddle), a bigger motor to turn it and more cooling power. It makes 3/4 quart (700ml) of firm gelato in 18 minutes. Wipe the bowl and it's ready to make another batch. It weighs 39 lbs and takes up a lot of space--and what a performer!

(I like gelato not ice cream. The difference is subtle--gelato supposedly has less fat, less air, a lighter feel and a less creamy taste.) So, next up was a quest for gelato recipes and instructions on how best to make the stuff. First off I found a British chef who has posted on the Net a number of hugely informative "Ice Cream Science" articles at Then onto two books, that in combination provide all the theory and info needed to start making a base gelato recipe to my liking. Four batches later, I have it, at least for now.

So after eleven years, it's time to make Raineer Cherry Gelato again. Stay tuned . . .

The literature does not clearly differentiate between base ice cream and base gelato recipe ingredients. Sources checked including the two books shown above use two parts whole milk to one part heavy cream for gelato--but so do most ice cream recipes! What is consistently different is that ice cream calls for six egg yolks and gelato recipes call for four.
Here are the gelato recipes I've done, so far.
They should work in any ice cream maker that can hold a quart of base.
Yield: about 800 ml (.85 quart)
2C 2% milk (see note)
1 C heavy cream
33 grams light corn syrup
1/4t double strength pure vanilla extract
4 egg yolks
2/3 C sugar
20 grams tapioca starch
1. In two heavy sauce pans:
a. Combine milk, cream, syrup and vanilla extract, heat and stir over medium heat to 170F
as tiny bubbles start to form near the edges
b. Meanwhile, whisk the egg yolks sugar and starch to pale yellow
2. Temper the egg yolk mixture by slowly pouring in the hot milk while
3. Place the tempered base over medium heat, stir and heat to 185F
(not more) as the base now makes a nice spoon trace
4 . Cool thoroughly for at least 8 hours until container's exterior reads as cool as others in the fridge (about 37F)

For the gelato:
5 . Start the Lillo and pre-cool it for 20 minutes (dasher off)
6. Remove the base custard from the fridge and pulse it with a stick blender to break up eggy clusters and to smooth it all out
7 . Start dasher rotation and pour in 700 to 800 ml of the base (about 3/4 quart)
8 . Churn for 17 minutes (on average). Temp should reach down to
about 07F
9. At the 15 minute point, add chocolate, nuts, fruit, etc.
10. When clearly frozen and pulling away from the bowl, stop machine and scoop out gelato into a cooled container for freezing
1. Books call for whole milk. My tests favor 2% as having less fat with no
difference in feel or taste.
2. Morano favors adding starch and syrup as thickeners and as an anti-ice
crystallization. I concur.
3. Ciao Bella favors straining the base before cooling. I prefer using the stick blander, which smoothes it out without losing custard to the strainer
4. The Lillo works best with 800 to 900 ml of custard--leaving room for
nuts and such (BTW, 946.35 ml = 1 quart).

Plain Base Gelato

40 grams pistachio paste. See note.
1/2 C pistachios, roughly chopped
1. Work the pistachio paste into the egg yolk mixture at Step 2b of the Plain
Base Gelato recipe.
2. Home made pistachio base is grainy, so stop and carefully use a stick blender (or whisk) in the pot to puree the base while it's heating to 185F.
2. Do not strain this base
3. Add the chopped pistachios at the 15 minute churning mark
Note: Make pistachio paste in the Vitamix by processing 1C of whole pistachios with 2 teaspoons of peanut oil. Process, pulse, stop and stir at slow speed. You can also buy the stuff on the Net.
Plain Base Gelato

3 drops peppermint oil. See note
100 grams Trader Joe's 73% Dark Chocolate (one bar), chopped
1. Work the peppermint oil into the egg yolk mixture at Step 2b of
the Plain Base Gelato recipe 2. Add the chopped chocolate at the 15 minute churning mark
Note: Oils are four times stronger than extracts and are unaffected
by heat.

I've come to the conclusion that there's not much difference in the taste and utility of smoky barbeque sauce, save for varying viscosity, spiciness, heat and price. The smoke is always dominant.
Folks in North Carolina figured this out and came up with vinegar based sauces without the smoke that masks the flavors. One of the best, my new favorite, is Lillie's 'Carolina' Western North Carolina Tomato Barbeque Sauce.

This stuff has dominant notes of vinegar, lime and tomato in that order with complexities from turmeric, sugar, Worcestershire Sauce, some mustard and spices. The result is a complex tasty sauce: a teaspoon of this is really yummy. They make another vinegar based sauce with mustard, with notes of lime, turmeric and hot paprika. It's outrageous on wild salmon! About $7.00 a bottle and worth it. They are outragiously good! -----------------------------------------------------------------
A Cup of This and a Cup of That

I like outmeal in my cookies and most of the recipes on this site call for it. The rest of the stuff that goes in is largely determined
by what's in the pantry, one cup at a time
This time, the results are worth bragging about. So here's . . .

Oatmeal, Pistachio, Coconut Cookies with a Touch of Lemon

(Yield: 2 dozen cookies)
See Abbreviations, if needed
·   ½ lb (2 sticks) butter, ambient temperature
·   1 C  light brown sugar
·   1 C sugar
·   1/2 t pure lemon oil or the zest of one lemon
·   2   eggs, ambient temperature
·   2 C AP flour, sifted
·   Pinch of salt
 ·  1 t   baking powder
·   1 C  rolled oats
·   1 C pistachios, salted, lightly chopped
·  1 C unsweetened coconut flakes, lightly chopped (unsweetened coconut is hard to find, try Whole Foods)
1.  Preheat oven to 350F
2.  Sift together flour, salt and baking powder and set aside
3.  Cream together butter and sugars in KA
4.  Add eggs
5.  Add flour
6.  Stir in oatmeal briefly, stir in the coconut briefly, stir in the pastachios briefly
7. Remove KAB and finish dough by hand with large spatula 
8. Place in fridge for about 30 minutes to stiffen the dough
9.  Scoop cooled dough with 2T scoop (#36) and place well apart on SP 
     with super parchment 
10. Insert two pistachio nuts atop of each mound of cookie dough
11.  Bake for about 10 minutes (convection) or until edges just begin to brown
9.  Rack to cool
Note: Lately I've found that cooling the dough in the fridge for a short period reduces dreaded cookie spread when baked.
Then And Now

First thing I did when receiving this book was dive into the bibliography to look for David Embury's The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks.
Embury's book was the first treatise on mixing good booze into good drinks along with articulate commentary and theories behind it all.
It has been the thoughtful mixologist's bible since it was first published in 1948. It's been a reference for me since my brother gave me a copy in 1958.
And there is was in the bibliography. What's more, opposite the very first page was a photo of fourteen "Historic Cocktail Books." Embury was second in the stack!
Described by Meehan as "the first theoretical book about mixology."
"Hallelujah. With a proper start, this book promises to be good."

Meehan's Bartender Manual
is up for both James Beard and IACP awards this year. And for good reasons.
First of all, the printers put together a thirteen pound manual on heavy paper with a sturdy binding that should survive being tossed about in backbar drawers across the land.
Meehan best describes his manual as ". . .layered : bartending itself . . . the history of the american cocktail . . . chapters on bar design, tools and techniques, service and hospitality."
All good stuff of broad interest. While bar design, service and hospitality chapters are of primary interest to aspiring professional bartenders. Indeed, they are Meehan's target audience.
Namely, the rising (he hopes) cohort of career professional bartenders. This perspective gives Meehan's work here unique relevance and gravitas.

For them and the rest of us, the book includes about one hundred recipes each with insightful information on the origin of the drink, the 'logic'
behind why it works, and 'hacks' for the "curious bartender." The result is that each recipe stands alone with highly substantive commentary that
reflects the author's research, his years of experience and, above all, his deep understanding, appreciation and respect for good booze.

This manual is a major contribution to the trade and its literature. A must-have reference for aspiring professionals tending bar and amateurs too.
Embury's The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks has been in print for most of seventy years. So too will Meehan's Bartender Manual be around for a long long time.

This is Really Good Salsa

I always have a salsa in the fridge for chips and, when it gets a little old, for red sauce starter for a pasta dish. The local source for fresh salsa is unreliable.
It's sometimes available, sometimes too hot and sometimes too watery and too hot. So onto the bottled stuff. Chip makers offer salsas and then there is always Pace's.
They're OK but not remarkable. So, in desperation, I Googled "best salsas." There I found a site that taste tested a dozen salsas, including the aforementioned.
They settled on "Salsa Divino" by Desert Pepper as best in class. Desert Pepper is an outfit out of El Paso that offers a full menu of salsas. A local store carries their line but not the
Salsa Divino. So I ordered six bottles on the Net. It took over three weeks and two vendors to finally get them.

Worth the wait! Salsa Divino is a medium thick chunky tomato and green pepper salsa with more than mild heat. It has a pronounced sharp tomato bouquet with strong hints of pepper and spices.
The only thing close to it, that I've tried, was a salsa made by Blue Mountain, which is no longer available. About $4.50 for a 16 oz bottle. Try it you'll like it!----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Veal Saltimbucca is a popular Italian dish done well in high end restaurants, where menu prices can cover the high cost of ingredients.
This is an easy dish to assemble and saute.

Veal Saltimbucca
See abbreviations if needed

You'll need:
2 veal scaloppini slices per person
4-5 sprigs of fresh sage leaves
1 large slice of Prosciutto de Parma per veal slice
For the sauce: 1/3C white wine, 2-4T butter, 2T capers and 1/4C chopped prosciutto and 1T lemon juice ------------------------------------------------
1. Place the scaloppini slices onto a sheet of plastic wrap and place another sheet on top
2. Pound the slices, with a tenderizing hammer, to significantly thin them
3. Remove the top plastic wrap and dress each slice with fresh sage leaves--since fresh sage is very strong, leave some space between
the leaves
4. Layer prosciutto slice over the sage
5. Cover again with plastic wrap and pound to seal the veal, sage and proscuitto
6. Hold point
7. OO, heat skillet(s) to medium high and add EVOO
8. Add the veal, PROSCIUTTO SIDE DOWN, then quickly add ground pepper to the veal top side
9. Cook no more than 45 seconds 10. Turn the veal over and cook for about 2 minutes--that's all
11. Transfer the veal to a warm plate and keep warm
12. For the sauce: Deglaze one of the skillets with white wine, reduce, then melt the butter, add the drained capers, add the chopped prosciutto and lemon juice
13. Serve ham side down with the sauce


Roasted Game Hens Asian

I like Cornish Game Hens and have one recipe here and another related, here. I try to find small ones but without much success even at the town's speciality butcher. These were smaller than the supermarket variety, but still too large for just one person. So, they're split to serve 6

Here's how:
See abbreviations if needed 
Yield:  6 servings

  • 1/4 C WWV
  • 2 T soy sauce
  • 2 T honey
  • 2 T peanut oil
  • 9 cloves garlic (that's right!)
  • 2 C chicken broth--low salt
  • 2 t red chili pepper flakes
  • 3 Cornish game hens, split with backbone removed
    1. Preheat oven to 350F
    2. In a blender bowl, add the first six ingredients, blend and set aside
    3. Split the hens and then brown them well in oil in a Dutch oven,
    in series as space permits--this takes time to do right
    4 . Arrange the browned hens in the Dutch oven and add the sauce from the blender
    5. Dust on the red chili pepper flakes
    6. Roast uncovered in the oven for about 90 minutes until the hens are very well done
    7. When done, transfer the hens to a serving platter--see photos--and keep warm
    8. Bring the sauce to a boil and reduce, leaving enough sauce to serve 6
    9. Pour the finished sauce into a gravy boat and keep warm
    10. On order, serve the hens on heated plates over a bed of rice pilaf and dress with the sauce


Next Dinner Party I'm Serving Pasta Garnished With Fresh Pressed EVOO

Awhile back, the Wall Street Journal featured an article about Mr. T.J. Robinson and his Fresh Pressed Olive Oil Club. Robinson, an American, knows EVOO and EVOO producers--worldwide--know him.
Four times a year, club members receive three bottles (mild, medium and bold) of the finest EVOO Robinson can find and buy. The bottles come packaged with an effusive brochure describing each selection,
how he found it, how it was processed and by whom. The brochure is a fun read since the oil lives up to the hype.

According to Tom Mueller in his book ExtraVirginity the "olive oil industry has been corrupt for a millennia and still is . . .doctoring good oil with cheap oil to the point that bad oil has driven out the good.
Mueller says that most consumers, even in the Med, "don't know the real stuff when they taste it." Well, Robinson is passionate about the real stuff. At $90 for three 8.5 oz. bottles every quarter, club members--including me--pay willingly and eagerly wait for more. (The club's at

So here we have Fettuccini with piquant peppers, fresh parsley and shrimp--garnished with the real stuff
(for 4)

1. Chop up a half cup of fresh parsley and set aside
2. Drain and dice about 6 piquant peppers ("Peppadew's") and set aside
3. Peel and clean 16 large shrimp (11-15 count) and set aside
4. Grate about 1/3 cup of Parmigiano-Reggiano and set aside
5.. Bring 3 cups of chicken stock, beer or water to boil. Place the shrimp in the boiling liquid,
cut the heat and steep, covered, for 2 minutes. Remove the shrimp and set aside
6.Boil enough fettuccini for four, drain and set aside.
7.When ready, saute the parsley and peppers in EVOO briefly over medium heat
8.Up the heat to high, add the pasta, shrimp, cheese and some fresh ground pepper and toss well
9. Place portions into heated pasta bowls
10. Drizzle your best EVOO generously over the pasta and serve immediately

A Wok of Many Uses


In Trader Joe's freezer section is a veggie package labeled Fire Roasted Bell Pepper and Onions. They tout it as a "quick fix for fajitas or sausage and peppers."
Indeed. it's pretty good. The veggies come through better than most frozen veggies.
I most often thaw veggies like this and then stir fry them in a little EVOO in a wok instead of a frying pan.
Reason? The wok heats up more quickly to very hot (+450F) and the EVOO spreads more thinly on its bottom and up its sides.
The result is a very quick and even heating of an already cooked product.

Nothing new here, save that when the veggies were done, I transferred them to a heated serving bowl and then stir fried the wild salmon in a little more EVOO.
Today's consensus is that fish should be cooked over medium heat while sitting in a pan or on the grill. I agree with that.
But "nothing sits in a wok." The whole idea of the wok is to cook in motion at high heat.
To that end, the wok's design makes tossing, flipping and stirring easier to learn and do than in a frying pan.
The salmon was done in about four minutes, in motion.

Here again is the 'operational sequence' for the wok:

The operational sequence for wok stir frying is as follows:
1) Preheat the wok dry to very hot.
2) Add some oil and swirl it about (carefully).
3) Add and roast the dry aromatics: spices, herbs and the like.
4) Push the aromatics up the side of the wok, add the protein(s) and stir fry to about three-quarters done. Then transfer the aromatics and proteins to a warm plate.
5) Add and heat more oil, add the veggies and stir fry to about three-quarters done.
6) Return the aromatics and protein to the wok and then drizzle in the liquid ingredients and remaining seasoning, deglaze, BTB and stir fry until the protein is done and the veggies are crisp.

7) Serve immediately on heated plates or in heated bowls.
c.f. Grace Young's Stir Frying To The Sky's Edge


Rémoulade Sauce is a classic mayonnaise-based sauce. It's great with crab cakes, soft shell crabs and shrimp. But it is heavy, loaded with calories and fat and sorta cloying.   So I started cutting it with sour cream, which has 1/3 the calories of mayo and is lighter on the palette--about 4 parts mayo and 3 parts sour cream will do it.  The recipe is reprinted below. 

Now I still find it too heavy and overbearing. So, of late, I've been adding rice wine vinegar. Do the recipe, taste and decide how you want to go. Then whisk in enough rice wine vinegar to really thin out the sauce. All the flavors that make the sauce great will still be there. In fact, I find the capers and cornichons come through better without being so mayo-clad.
Try it, you'll like it!

See abbreviations if needed 
Yield:  8 servings 

  •   1/2C      mayonnaise
  •   3oz        sour cream
  •   1T          Dijon mustard
  •   2t           capers, drained and chopped
  •   2            cornichon (or small gherkin) pickles, very finely diced
  •   1T          fresh parsley, chopped
  •   1T          fresh tarragon and anchovy paste
  •   pepper   TT 
  •   No salt  (anchovy paste is loaded with it)
  •   juice       of 1/2 small lemon, not too much, taste and add
1.  Mix all together, cover and refrigerate 
2.  Serve at room temperature as a side for crab cakes or other fish 
A nicer and smoother sauce can be made more quickly using a stick blender.
Hold the cornichons , blend the rest of the ingredients and then add them. 


TWICE BAKED POTATOES (revised again)

Sorta like mashed potatoes in their skins, but more texture and flavor with bacon and cheese.
The extra effort make these potatoes a substantive side dish that's fun to take apart and eat.

For 4
• 4 russet baking potatoes
• 5 oz shredded sharp cheddar
• 2/3 C sour cream
• 1/2 C milk (2% OK) or buttermilk, if you have it • 4 T butter (ambient)

• 4 T spring onions or shallots, diced
• 1 clove (cube) garlic
• 2 t salt
• 1 t ground pepper
• 3 strips bacon lardons

1. Oil, dock and bake potatoes in the microwave with about five 3minute bursts
or in the oven at 400F for one hour to fork tender. (If microwaved, preheat oven to 275F)
2. Cut the bacon into 3/4" squares (lardons) and fry to crisp and set aside
3 . When potatoes are cool, neatly cut off top quarter skin, with serrated knife, scoop outo an SSB leaving ¼” liner with shel4 . Return shells to oven to dry for 10 minutes, and then set aside
5 . Add ingredients (except bacon and some reserved cheese for topping) to
the SSB and mix well, then add potatoes and mix with large spatula to chunky or smooth
6 . Taste for salt and pepper
7 . Restuff the shells, punch in the bacon, and top with cheese (hold point)
8. On order, reheat the stuffed potatoes in the microwave (better and quicker than the oven)
9. Optional: After Step 8, place all under the broiler to the melt cheese and brown the potatoes a bit
-------------------------------------------- -

Chinese Five Spice Chicken

Chinese Five Spice Powder, by Penseys Spices, is comprised of cassia, cinnamon, star anise, ginger and cloves. It make a good
meat marinade with 2T of the spice, 2T honey, 1t of soy sauce (only a splash), a generous cup of limeaide or orange juice and S/P.
Here, chicken thighs were marinated in the fridge for about four hours, then browned in EVOO in a Foster Cast Iron Skillet along
with some funky fingerling potatoes and shallot halves and then finished in a 375F oven until tender, about 45 minutes.
The marinade should be discarded but enough will cling to the chicken to lend lots of flavor.

Nice dish.


Sometimes Less Tastes Better (revised to include White Balsamic Vinegar)


I've liked A1 sauce since I was a kid, but of late it tastes overwhelming. Or maybe the steaks I'm eating now are better. So too with Dat'l Do-It,
another favorite sauce that is flavorful but quite strong. Barbecue sauce is another example of a potion too thick and strong sometimes. Of course, too much
Wasabi Sauce packs too big a punch in the nose. So, rather than delete these tried and true sauces, why not delute them? Water works but not nearly
as well as Rice Vinegar or White Balsamic Vinegar. Pour a serving of sauce into a ramakin and then add about a fourth as much of either vinegar, or to purpose and taste. Stir well
to mix and emulsify and you have a new sauce that compliments today's tastes.

I much prefer to serve sauces like these as a side rather than pouring them on the plate or, good grief, over the meat or fish entre.

Try it, this is really a good idea. You'll like the results.

Coq Au Vin

The long simmer is done. Chicken parts are now ready to be removed from the Dutch oven and hand-pulled from the bones.

Ready to serve with pearl onions, chanterelles and bacon lardons, added just before serving
Coq au Vin is the first dish I prepared from Julia Child's Mastering The Art of French Cooking, back in about 1971. I've since
made it now and then (twice for 30 people), but not recently.
Its preparation, while not at all difficult--it's only a stew--requires techniques and sequences that embody much of what French
cooking in all about. Hence, I've added a lot of steps.
Dark meat is traditional, but some white meat is OK, see photo 2.
Allow for two pieces of chicken per person plus two for the pot.

Yield: 8
See Abbreviations, if needed 
• 18 Pieces of chicken legs (skin on) and thighs (skin off), a breast too, OK
• mirepoix (by volume = 3 parts onion, 2 parts carrot, 1 part celery) start with 2 large onions, roughly cut (It's all going to be discarded)
• BG, a satchel of parsely stems, bay leaf, pepper corns and fresh thyme)
• 3 garlic cloves
• 2T flour
• 6T tomato paste
• 3C chicken stock or low sodium broth
• 1 bottle of red wine
• 4 strips of bacon, cut into lardons (3/4 inch bite sized pieces) and fried to crisp
• 30 pearl onions, boiled in water for about 7 minutes
• 20 mushrooms, sauteed in EVOO for about 5 minutes

1. Season chicken parts with S/P
2. In a large Dutch oven (hereafter "pot"), saute chicken parts in EVOO to brown and set aside
3. Pour out the excess chicken fat and then add more EVOO
4. Add the mirepoix, saute to brown over medium high heat, don't burn
5. About half way through, add the BG and garlic
6. When mirepoix is done, return chicken to the pot, add the tomato paste, add the red wine and stir in
7. Then dust the whole mess with AP flour and stir in
8. With a flat edge plastic spatula, dig down to the bottom of the pot and scrape it to loosen the good brown stuff
9. Give all a final stir, add stock to barely cover the meat, BTB and then reduce heat to simmer
10. Cover the pot and simmer for about 100 minutes
11. Meanwhile, prepare the garnish:
• Fry bacon lardons to crisp and set aside in a secure place as they tend to disappear if there's traffic in the kitchen
• Blanch the onions, peel, season and saute until tender, and set aside
• Half the cleaned mushrooms and saute in EVOO until tender, and set aside
12. When the chicken parts are very done, turn off the heat, transfer the chicken parts to a working surface and let cool a bit
13. By hand, pull the chicken meat from the bones and break into large bite sized pieces (don't use a knife), and set aside
14. As the sauce is now cooled a bit, skim off any fat clinging to the edges of the pot
15. First Taste: add some salt and pepper if the whole mess tastes flat
16. Now strain the sauce to remove the veggies:
• With help, place a colander or China cap over a bowl and pour all the contents of the pot into it
• With a large spoon or spatula, aggressively push the pulp against the porous sides of the strainer to get all the liquid through
• Discard the pulp and return the sauce to the pot over medium heat
• If you doubt there is enough sauce, add some water (NEVER add stock or wine to a near-finished sauce)
• Final Taste, adjust for S/P
17. When about ready to serve, add the meat and garnishes, stir in, BTB, then reduce heat to medium
18. Serve over white rice (not pilaf). Good dinner rolls too, maybe
Note: If you want a veggie, serve parsley potatoes or buttered green beans.

Paella Revised

Made paella on Saturday after Thanksgiving as a tutorial for a nephew in law who received a paella pan for his birthday.
The dish turned out tasting better than all earlier editions, hence this revs ion of the old recipe.

Serves 8
See abbreviations, if necessary
• 8 cups chicken stock or low salt broth
• 3 cups water (reserved for Steps 10 and 12)
• 2 lbs monkfish or grouper, cut to serving size
• 24 raw medium shrimp, shelled
• 3/4 lb squid, cut crosswise for rings
• 14 chicken legs, grilled
• 4 links chorizo, hot Italian and/or marquez sausage, grilled
• 2 onions, diced
• 5 garlic cloves, pureed
• 3 cups Bamba short grain Spanish rice (Arborio will do, but . . .)
• big pinch saffron, hand rubbed
• 1 T sweet paprika
• 1 t smoked paprika
• 28 oz can of diced tomatoes, drained
• 3 dozen mussels
• 2 oz white wine (for the mussels)
• 3/4 cup peas (frozen OK)
• 1.5 cup artichoke hearts (canned OK), drained, halved
• 2 red peppers, roasted, bite size, square cut, or 10 piquante peppers, diced
• 5 pickled lemons, deseeded, cut in eighths (if you got them)
• ½ cup fresh parsley leaves (garnish)
• S/P
1. Prepare separately fish, shrimp and squid, set aside, keep warm
• Sauté lightly S/P'd fish in EVOO
• Flash sauté squid rings over high heat, no oil needed (I seasoned the squid with Chinese
Five Spice Powder)
• Boil the shrimp in beer or broth (don't over cook)
2. In another pan or on the grill, season and sauté or grill chicken legs and
sausage, set aside
3. In paella pan, add 3T of EVOO and sweat onion and garlic to translucent
4. Add the rice and coat the grains
5. Add a cup of stock, then saffron, paprika and diced tomato
6 Add more stock to total about 8 cups
7. BTB, then reduce heat to medium and cook rice for about 12 minutes until rice tastes soft to the bite
and a spoon leaves a trace on the pan bottom (Don't proceed until . . .)
8. Hold point (pre-heat oven to 400F)
9. OO, in another pot, cook mussels in 2 ozs white wine and 2 ozs stock, covered until they open--a few minutes
10. On low heat on the stove top: (allow 10 minutes for this step)
• stir in artichokes, peas, peppers, squid and sliced sausage
• nicely arrange and push in shrimp, fish, chicken and mussels
• add those platter juices that taste good
• taste again for seasoning
• check dryness and add water as needed (not stock at this point)
11. Bake uncovered at 400F for about 15 minutes
12. Remove from oven, check again for dryness
13. Add parsley garnish
14. Serve from the pan onto heated bowls

Hear Me now?

My old three event timer died, so I got a new one from Oxo only to discover that the beeper was so weak I couldn't hear it over the roar of the kitchen vent system--with or without hearing aids. (I somehow missed the review complaints regarding the weak volume beeper.) So, an Amazon search came up with this single event timer from ThermoWorks, the same people that make the ThermoPen. It features four olume settings. Volume Three (as shown) can be heard outside the kitchen and Volume Four will disrupt a conversation anywhere in the house. It's made for commercial kitchens and is suitably rugged. It also features a fold out stand and magnetic mounts. I taped over the logo to number it, as I need two for two events. About forty five dollars. A very good tool.

Spicy Brussels Sprouts
See Abbreviations, if needed 

For four, as a side

1. Select 12-15 small sprouts and pull off their outer floppy leaves
• refresh root stem
• cut a cross pattern on the root stem with a paring knife (to help steam get in)
2. Steam for 11 minutes or pressure cook for 4 minutes, until tender
3. Remove and shock in cold water
4. Drain, cut sprouts in half and hold
5. Combine 3T red wine vinegar, 2T maple syrup, 2 cloves garlic
crushed and 1/2t red pepper flakes, crushed
4. Heat 2T EVOO in skillet, add combined mixture and cook briefly
5. Add the halved sprouts to the mixture cut side down, cook and stir until mixture glazes
6. S/P to taste, toss, then serve topped with sliced scallions or shallots

Sous Vide

I've put off writing about sous vide for years becasue the cost of the equipment needed was so high that the majority of home cooks would pass it by. Now a sous vide "circulator" can be had for $200 (down from $800 five years ago). There are now even ways to get started in sous vide without a circulator and without a vacuum sealer (the other gadget needed and that has also come down to $100 from $300). J. Kenji Lopez-Alt's The Food Lab, reviewed below, has a whole section on sous vide without a circulator or vacuum sealer. (I'm not convinced, but there it is.)

Sous vide is just another way of cooking--it doesn't replace frying, broiling, braising or grilling. Sous vide ("under vacuum") was invented in France by chefs in institutional kitchens. It is a method of cooking whereby a product to be cooked is 1) vacuum sealed in a pouch, 2) immersed into a container of water heated and maintained precisely to a set temperature, 3) cooked slowly in the water for a set period of time, 4. removed from the pouch and browned, sauteed or tossed briefly to improve its appearance before serving.

Why bother? Well, sous vide has some remarkable advantages.
1. Once you've established the desired temperature and time for a sous vide dish, you or anyone else in the kitchen can repeat it exactly every time with exactly the same results every time. (For example, 10 seasoned-in-the-pouch filet mignons or lamb chops can be cooked perfectly every time without anxiety and without monitoring while cooking.) Some folks have complained that this takes the art out of coooking.
2. Cooking sous vide produces textual qualities that cannot be achieved with other cooking methods. (It is not possible, for example, to grill or saute a lamb chop or T-bone to medium rare and have it medium rare from edge to center to bone. If the center is medium rare, the meat attached to the bone will still be rare or near raw). At a restaurant, I can cut into a steak or chop and tell if it was done sous vide because it will have the same degree of doneness throughout.
3. Because food is vacuum sealed in a pouch, nutrients, seasoning, fat and flavor do not escape as with other cooking methods. Shrinkage is also significantly reduced when cooking meats, fish and poultry, especially fish.
4. Set it and forget it. Put the food in the cooking bath, set the alarm, leave it and tend to your guests. But wait--there's more. When the alarm does go off you have up to 20 minutes to retrieve the pouches without overcooking the ingredients.

Pictured here is a stock pot with the PolyScience Pro Circulator, the only one on the market in 2011. Powerful and accurate to 1/10 degree F, it works great. PolyScience and others now offer circulators from $200 to $300.
I admire and appreciate the ease, convenience, consistency and precision of sous vide. I've been doing sous vide since Modernist Cuisine came out in 2011. There are now quite a few sous vide cookbooks available. One coming out in November looks especially promising. Of course, if you have Modernist Cuisine, go there first, since they started it.

I'm comfortable with the method and through trial and error have acquired some practical numbers. The list suggests, as well, the kind of products I've been doing sous vide.

Eggs Pasteurized 134.5F for 2 hours (for Caesar salads)
Halibut, thick 132/27 min
Filet Mignon 135/45 min
Lamb Chops 140/45 min
Leeks, Carrots 185/50 min
New York Steak 138/45 min
Pork Chops 132/60 min
Pork Tenderloin 138/45 min
Rib Eye Steak 134/45 min
Veal Chops 140/50 min
Veal Shanks 185/4 hours

What's not to like? Well, Since you have suitable pots or containers for a circulator, the minimum price for a sous vide setup (circulator and vacuum sealer) comes to about $300, down from $1100. Or try The Food Lab sous vide method. Just think about it: you could cook steaks or burgers sous vide for a crowd and go near the stove top, but twice!

I Really Like my New Vacuum Sealer

Way back in 2001, I sang the praises of the FoodSaver vacuum sealer. I've been using it all these years, first to vacuum seal food for storage, keep perishables like lettuce fresh longer and more recently to vacuum seal meats and veggies for sous vide. They are quite popular now. Costco carries the FoodSaver. Yesterday, while processing half steaks and lamb chops (from Costco) the unit failed to complete its cycle, failed to unlock the lid and just sat there unblinking. All attempts to revive it failed.

After a little thought, I concluded that I really do not want to be without a vacuum sealer. Trying to load lamb chops into a Zip Lock bag and then trying to get enough air out of it to make it sink when dunked in
the sous vide tank doesn't work very well. Also, without a vacuum seal, brown sugar is rock hard in a month, while rice, orzo, spices and other dry stuff go stale quickly. So, I want a new one.

FoodSaver and others of its type are known as suction or external vacuum sealers. They feature a small vacuum chamber that holds only the open lip of a proprietary plastic pouch, which rests external to the machine. The machine then evacuates air out of the external pouch into the machine's chamber and then seals the pouch. This works fine. The external vacuum sealers are small and portable. Some are even battery powered for hunters and fishermen, while in the field. But they have two shortcomings: the pouches are expensive and the machine cannot process liquids or wet products very well. Not that vacuum sealing soups is all important, but rather that it takes experience and care to prevent blood from raw meats and juices from raw fish from being sucked into the chamber and from there to the pump.

There is another vacuum sealer technology. Along came the idea to greatly enlarge the chamber inside the machine so it can hold a whole pouch and its contents inside the machine. Then, close the lid, draw a vacuum, seal the pouch to hold its vacuum and then release the vacuum in the chamber. These are called chamber vacuum sealers. Advantages over the external suction vacuum sealers: pouches are cheap, it draws a better vacuum, it can process soups and such, and if the chamber and lid are deep enough, whole roasts and even canning jars. The chamber vacuum seal technique is used throughout industry to vacuum pack everything from clothing to spare parts to smoked salmon and soy sauce packs. Shortcomings of the chamber machine for home use are its large size and initial cost.

Reviews of FoodSaver machines, now owned by a different company and manufactured elsewhere, are OK but less favorable than years back. Others of its type have better reviews but share the same shortcomings and have prices approaching chamber vacuum sealers that now are designed and priced for home and delicatessen use.

So, here we have the VacMaster VP 112s Chamber Vacuum Sealer.

It's too big (24" deep x 14 wide x 9 high) for the kitchen pantry, where the FoodSaver resided, but fits comfortably in the utility room next to the second fridge. The VacMaster VP112s is a beautifully designed and constructed machine. Its performance is flat out impressive. If you are new to this and interested, first look hard at the external suction machines. If you've worn one of them out, or you want something better, you'll be far happier if you upgrade to a chamber machine.

An advanced thinker described eternity as a couple with a ham.
Even buying a quarter ham leaves one dining alone with thoughts of how to use it up. Fortunately, I like sandwich spreads and often prepare chicken, egg or tuna to pile on good bread with lettuce. Not so much with ham spread. But I got an urging, bought a quarter ham, only to discover that I could not find a recipe that came close to what I had in mind. So here we have Eternity Ham Spread:

Eternity Ham Spread
See Abbreviations, if needed 

9 oz. (1.5C) smoked ham, roughly dice with knife and then pulse in an FP (Cuisinart) to a medium cut (not fine or pasty)
3 T mayo, maybe more
2 T Dijon mustard
6 squirts Tennessee Sunshine or other medium hot pepper sauce
1.5 clove garlic, pureed
2 cloves, broken up and crushed with a heavy knife
1/2 t paprika
1/4 C shallot, finely diced
5 cornichon or gherkin pickles (about 2.5 T), finely diced
2 T red or green bell pepper, finely diced
1/2 lemon, juiced
2 light shakes of cayenne, TT
1. Process the diced ham and set aside
2. In a bowl, mix together all the other ingredients
3. Add the ham and mix thoroughly
4. Add more mayo if too dry
5. Taste, then hold in fridge

An Enhanced Flavoring Trick

Chilled Corn and Crab Soup
(Serves 4)
See Abbreviations, if needed 

7 ears of fresh corn
4 T butter
2 shallots, sliced
2 C whole milk
1.5 water
2 t salt
5 grinds of pepper corn
1 T lemon juice
8 oz. crabmeat
5 sprigs of fresh chives for garnish, sliced into 1/2" lengths
1. Husk the corn and cut off the kernels from each cob with a sharp paring knife
2. In a large pot, melt the butter and sweat the shallots to translucent
3. Add the corn kernels to the pot, add the milk, warer and S/P, then add the corn cobs (as many as can fit)
4. BTB and then simmer the whole mess until the corn is tender, about 12 minutes (see photo)
5. With sturdy tongs, lift out each cob, rake it down with the back side of your paring knife
and then discard each
6. With a slotted spoon, scoop out 1/3 C of the corn and shallots and set aside for the garnish
7. Puree the hot soup in a food processor or blender and strain if the kernels in the soup are
not completely broken up
8. Place finished soup in a container and fridge until cold
For the garnish:
1. In a small pot, add 1 T of EVOO
2. Add the reserved corn and shallots
3. Heat briefly
4. Off heat, add 1T of lemon juice and S/P to taste
5. Mix, let cool to ambient, then add the crab meat, mix again, taste
On Order:
1. Remove the soup from the fridge and check seasoning for S/P
2 . Serve even portions of soup with even shares of the crab mixture
3 . Dress with the chives

James Beard Foundations's Book of the Year Award Winner

Chef/Owner/Author Michael Solomonov avers that " Israeli food is not a collection of static traditional recipe. It is an idea. Israel is only sixty years old and barely melted pot of cultures from all over the world. There aren"t really Israeli restaurants in Israel . . . there are Bulgarian, Arabic, Georgian restaurants and many more . . .what connects them, what makes them Israeli, is an approach to dining and hospitality that is shaped by a shared experience."

There are more ideas in this cookbook than anything I 've read since Food Lab.

Right off, I got stuck in the first section where Solomonov carries on for forty six pages about tahini, tahini sauce and humas. So convincing was all this that I got on Amazon and ordered a half dozen jars of Zome Tahini, which he raves about, and then went to the store and got a big bag of chickpeas. I've made it twice. It's good beyond anything store bought--not only because it's fresh but also that it contains none of the commercial additives needed to preserve the stuff while on a market shelf. The book offers many variations of basic humas. The humas in the photo is simply dressed with paprika and Agrumoto Lemon EVOO, which pair wonderfully with the humas. The recipe makes a lot of humas so, my favorate neighbors were delighted with presento plates of the stuff along with some pita bread to wipe it up.

Solomonov's chapters on salads, small dishes, rice and meats are especially inventive, inviting and uncomplicated for the experienced home cook.

Award winning ZAHAV and Food Lab, both reviewed on this page, are cookbooks that make significant contributions to the culinary literature. Awards happen every year, but cookbooks like these don't. Both will make fine additions to the libraries of your ambitious grand nieces and nephews.

Solomanov's Humas

Never Say Best, But This is Close

Twenty years ago you could not find an artisanal loaf of bread. Now good bakeries abound and folks wait in line to pay for a great loaf. So too with coffee, tea and EVOO. Not so with high quality kitchenware , which has been available a lot longer. Cooks have been lugging copper pans home from Dehillerin's in Paris for fifty years and are still using them or have since passed them on to their kids--who are still using hem. For as long as I have been at it, quality kitchen knives started and ended with Wosthuf and Henckel until maybe ten years ago. Then, along came sushi and sushi chefs. Japanese knives came into favor among american chefs and home cooks. Their popularity has spread to the significant degree that forged and beautifully crafted knives by Shun and others are widely available at Sur la Table and Williams Sonoma.

Now, most recently, limited production, hand made knives from Japan are sought after. Most desirable are knives made one at a time by named craftsmen in their own shops. Here we have a chef's knife ("gyutou") made by Itsuo Doi that to my experienced eye reaches the highest level of industrial art. Doi-san forges this knife from blue steel, then adds carbon cladding, finishes the blade wonderfully, sharpens it on both sides, adds an ebony handle with a sterling silver band and then etches it with his signature. It weighs in at 9 ounces, a bit lighter than the Wosthuf chef's knife also shown for comparison but a bit heavier than most other Japanese knives of its type. (Of note: the top angled, beveled edge appears sharpened but is not.) Cost? I invite you to visit where you will enjoy looking for it.)

I can't stop using this knife; I'm even slicing cherry tomatoes with it. I won't argue the merits of these hand made forged knives over production forged knives, save that they are perfectly balanced in the hand, a pleasure to cut with, do a better job (cut an onion and not tear up) and are visually striking in every detail. All of this and more. There is something unique, apart and ethereal about the Doi.
"Ain't nothin like it."

(BTW, The same hand forged knife tradition thrives in the USA, where high quality knives are popular and collectable. For example, W. D. Randal and sons have made fine knives for 70 years. I bought my first Randal knife in 1948--waited nine months to get it and paid $95 for it (a lot of money then and for a kid in the 8th grade). They're still making them for about $600 and delivery still takes nine months!)

Roasted Game Hens Mediterranean Revisited

Supper market game hens are large enough to split--one bird serves two. If you have a source for "well husbanded"
poultry--where slow growth is the rule--birds will be smaller, more tender and tastier. (See photo.)
So, make this recipe with five split or five whole birds. Plenty of sauce to add a bird or two.

(Serves 10 (split) or 5 (whole)
See Abbreviations, if needed 

• 5 game hens split w/ backbone removed, or five whole smaller birds
• 4oz EVOO
• 3 cloves garlic, minced
• 4T oregano
• 1C prunes, pitted
• 1C dried apricots
• 1/3C pitted and sliced green or black olives
• 1/3C capers
• 1/3C pickled lemons, seeded (if you can find them at a Middle East store)
• 8 bay leaves
• 1/3C brown sugar
• 4T chopped Italian parsley
• 1C RWV
• 1C WW
• S/P

1. In a large bowl, combine all ingredients, except hens and white wine, and mix well
2. Cover and refrigerate overnight
3. Next day, split hens (if large), rub them w/ S/P
4. Grill or sauté the hens to brown the skin and then set aside
5. Preheat oven to 350F
6. Add the white wine to the roasting sauce
7. Arrange hens in roaster, spoon over marinade
8. Roast for 60 minutes and check temp for doneness
9. Roast another 30 minutes until birds are above 165F, AND the meat is tender (don't undercook the birds)
10. When ready, remove roaster from oven and skim off any fat appearing at the edges of the roaster
11. Place each bird on a heated plate and add a generous portion of fruited sauce. Top w/ parsley
12. Serve remaining sauce in a heated gravy boat

A Good Vinegar-based Slaw With Heat

The Washington Post, in their food section today, had a slaw recipe to go with a pulled pork article. They took it from a Jim Shahin, a culinary columnist. It looked good so I made it with three modifications: I never use distilled vinegar in food except to crowd poached egg whites, otherwise it's always rice vinegar, white or red wine vinegar. I don't stock Tabasco but buy Tennessee Sunshine by the case. I added radicchio for color and sharpness.
You will need a shredder or better yet your Cuisinart with a thin slice blade for the cabbage and medium shredder blade for the other veggies.

So here's how:

Alabama Style Slaw
Serves 8 to 10
1/2 medium green cabbage, cored and slicer processed
1 small radicchio, cored and slicer processed
2 medium carrots, shredder processed
1 small red onion or large shallot, shredder processed
1 green pepper, shredder processed
1/2 C French's yellow mustard
1/4 C dark brown sugar, or light if it's all you got
1 t salt
10 grinds of fresh ground pepper
2 t Tennessee Sunshine or 1 t Tabasco
1. Toss the first five ingredients and the mustard thoroughly in a large bowl
2. Place the sugar, salt, pepper and hot sauce into a small saucepan
3. Stir and heat the dressing until hot but not boiling
4. Taste and adjust
5. Pour the heated dressing over the slaw and toss thoroughly
6. Serve ambient or slightly chilled
7. Store in the fridge

Here's The Idea . . .

Cocktails and The Big Game for eight. As excitement rises, someone surely picks up the wrong glass. Annoying to all, really annoying to some.
The solution: set out eight different wine glasses. Looks great, draws comments and puts potential miscreants (usually me) on guard.
Anyhow, wine glasses break and it was time to restock.
Sur la Table had five nice ones at low cost. Williams Sonoma had the glass front left for a bit more and the others are old reliables.

Standup Potato Gratin

Kenji Lopez-Alt, author of The Food Lab, profiled below, has this great idea for presenting potatoes gratin. It's different, attractive and promotes better baked slices. So, here is my standup potato gratin:

Stand Up Potatoes Gratin
Yield: 2 servings

 1 pad    butter
6 oz     half and half or 2% milk with creme fraiche added (4 parts milk to :2 parts creme fraiche)
1/3 C  grated fresh Parmigiano Reggiano or cheddar
1         garlic cloves chopped or pureed
6        medium to small red potatoes, skin on

1. Butter a straight sided ramekin or pan (a 5.5" copper ramekin, is shown above)
2. In a bowl or container suitable for a whisk or stick blender, add garlic, salt (quite a lot), pepper, cheese and cream
3. Whisk all thoroughly or use a stick blender, then transfer mixture to a large bowl
4 . Slice the potatoes thinly with a mandoline or knife and place them in the large bowl
5. With your hands, toss the potato slices until every slice is well coated
6. Holding the ramekin at an angle, layer in the potato slices vertically, packing them tightly
7. Drizzle in the re-stirred cream mixture to fill the ramekin almost to the top
8. Reserve the rest of the cream mixture
9. Cover the ramekin with foil and bake at 400F for about 45 minutes (Use tray since tamekin will bubble over a bit)
10. Remove the ramekin from the oven and remove the foil
11. Drizzle in some more of the re-stirred cream mixture (if there is room)
12. Return the ramekin to the oven and bake, uncovered for another 20 minutes until potato slices
are fork tender (be sure about this--nothing worse than an underdone potato)
13. Optional, when potatoes are done, turn on the broiler and brown the tops nicely, as shown
Note: Leftovers? Fry 'em up for breakfast with eggs

Do You Need An Infrared Thermometer?

An infrared thermometer (IRT) measures the amount of infrared energy radiated by the surface of the target it's pointed at. If you fry a lot, an IRT is quite useful. The usual way to determine if a skillet is hot enough to brown a steak, for example, is to wave a hand over it and guess, or dash a few drops of water on the dry surface to see if they dance on their own steam. If that is not accurate enough, or you're worried about non stick coatings, or you're living in the California draught where spare drops of water are hard to come by, an IRT will tell you in an instant the precise temperature of the skillet surface or the surface temperature of anything in the kitchen or beyond (your cooking oil or baby's bath water, for example).

Sous vide is the only way I do thick steaks and lamb chops. However, when done, they come out of the vacuum bag gray in color, un-browned. Standing by for the task is a cast iron skillet. Heat the skillet until the IRT reads 450F and slide the meat into it for quick browning. In time, as I keep score, I will determine with the IRT, the optimum browning temperature for steaks and chops, whereby they brown quick and deep without re-cooking the meat within. (I think that temperature is well north of 450F.) Now, regarding non stick skillets: it is accepted that non stick coatings, Teflon and the like, are stable at temperatures below 600F, some say 500F. Rather than throw out your non stick pans, buy and use an IRT and get over the anxiety.

This model is manufactured by Fluke, a very respected company. It cost about $90. They can be had for a little as $20 or much much more.

A Japanese Hybrid Vegetable Knife

Pictured above are two fine Japanese kitchen knives. On top is a "santoku" a Japanese chef's knife. At the bottom is a "nakiri" a Japanese vegetable knife. The santoku has gained wide popularity in the West over the past twenty years. I bought this one in Yokosuka, Japan in 1977 solely on the advise of the knife store owner (I didn't know what it was). At about the same time at the same store, I bought a "nakiri" (again not knowing much about it). While the santoku has been in constant use over the years, the nakiri sat in the drawer (I finally gave it to a starving nephew). While I liked its broad blade, I didn't like the flat cutting edge, which is, or at least was at the time, the traditional shape of nakiris. Perforce, it was only good for chopping.

Now comes along a hybrid nakiri with the same broad blade for chopping but with a slightly curved cutting edge, which enables it to be rocked a little like a santoku. The blades on both of these knives are 7" long and both begin to curve up 6" from the tip. However, the santoku curves up 3/4 of an inch, raising the tip to enable rocking/slicing motion used to cut. This nakiri curves up only 3/8 of an inch raising the tip slightly but enough that the knife can be used for more than chopping veggies.

I'm all in for this new knife. I got it from Chubo knives ( Chubo offers an impressive selection of fine Japanese knives most all in stock, which is unusual for knife vendors. This nakiri is hand forged and finished by a third generation blacksmith, Shosui Takeda. It is made from hard carbon steel, clad with stainless steel, I have another of his knives as shown far down on this page. The strengths of this type of knife are light weight, fine balance and sharpness. Their weakness is high price and higher maintenance. Like a Lamborgini, which needs shop care more often than a Ford.

By The Way . . . Cherry tomatoes are in, whole ones are out


I've grown to prefer cherry tomatoes over the big ones, which I rarely buy anymore. Here's why: They always taste good, even in winter. They keep well. They're all red with no white veins, but a little less juicy. They're versatile--with a little knife work they look great in salads, fit nicely on hamburger patties, pop into the Vitamix blender and they dice neatly. They make a great amuse-bouche (see way down on this page). Oh, and there is less waste (no Saran wrapped half cut tomatoes lost in the fridge for a week.

Try 'em--you'll like 'em.

Cast Iron Skillets: Try Them Again for the First Time

First from Japan and now from the USA, come re-thought cast iron skillets of the highest quality and design. A new (2012) company called Finex in Portland, Oregon has come out with hand crafted heavy cast iron skillets in 8",10" and 12" sizes. Pricey at $125 to $195, with covers at additional cost (don't buy covers for skillets). The octagon shape is eye catching and allows for easy and accurate pouring. The cooking surface is computer machined to a very smooth surface and then pre-seasoned. Pictured is the 12" skillet, new out of the box. The smaller sized skillets are available at Williams Sonoma and the whole line at

I like using cast iron skillets. Non-stick pans and copper have their place but, as the years go by, I favor cast iron more and more. The two unique things about them are that they conduct and retain heat like no others and that they can be placed dry on a burner, fired low and left on the burner until ready to use. That can't be done with any other dry pan, even enameled cast iron. The practice saves time in a professional's kitchen ensuring a hot skillet when wanted. So too at home.

There are other cast iron pans in the house by Lodge, Griswold and Le Crueset, but the Iwachu and now the Finex are, by far, the most attractive high quality cast iron skillets I have ever come across. Much to like here--the polished stainless steel "speed cool" handle, the heft, the finished cooking surface, the shape and balance. These hand crafted skillets remind me of the advertisement for the Patek Phillipe watch wherein they tout that you never actually own one, but merely look after it for the next generation. The Finex is indeed an heirloom skillet.

A BLT tonight, with four stripes of bacon, should be the perfect inaugural fry.

Postscript: The new skillet did the bacon proper. However, the "speed cool" handle, while "cool" style-wise, is still attached to cast iron, which is super conductive (that's why we use them). Therefore, like all other fired cast iron skillets, the Finex should always be handled with a towel between it and you!

Beautiful Non-stick Iron Skillets From Japan

This skillet is made by Iwachu, a company in Japan well known worldwide for their cast iron tea pots and kettles. Iwachu has been casting iron for centuries. I read about their "omelet pan" earlier, lost the reference, then saw it again and decided to get it from an Amazon like company in Japan called Rakuten Global Market. Amazon now carries the Iwachu skillet in two sizes" 9.5 inch and 8.5 inch for $101US and $78US. That puts it in the price range of All Clad and Le Crueset, which is fine since it's functionally as good if not better than what they offer and far more attractive.

About the pan: At 9.5 inches across, it is of medium heavy cast iron (lighter than the Finex) with fine design lines--beautifully shaped with a long graceful handle and sloping cavity walls about 2 inches deep at the far edge and little more shallow at the near. It is so designed to promote the flipping of an omelet, which it does nicely. The surface is treated in a manner like Le Crueset cast iron, with the result that not much sticks to it. The 8.5 inch pan is identical--just smaller. The larger pan is best to brown steaks and chops when done sous vide; for three-egg omelets or scrambled eggs and for grilled cheese sandwiches. The smaller one is handy to fry two eggs or a hamburger or to warm up a leftover of any sort. And, since cast iron pans enjoy an oven visit now and then, both sized pans work great for an oven-finished frittata or baked corn bread.

Osso Buco

It just doesn't get any better than cooking for three beautiful women: my big sister (house guest) and two grand nieces (in town grad-schooling). I was going to prepare Game Hens Mediterranean, but my sister had heard of osso buco, never had it and so asked me to prepare it. Osso Buco ("pierced bone") is veal shanks braised in EVOO, white wine, veggies and Italian seasonings as done before in Osso Buco Tagine.

We went over to the local Organic Butcher and got four veal shanks--at great expense. (I have stated many times in this blog that I won't spend an extra dime for organic produce but will pop for meat and poultry from well husbanded farms and ranches, where value is clearly added and higher quality is evident. These veal shanks did not disappoint.)

So, with the veal shanks in hand, I had to do something different with them. This time, I ditched Italian and went with seasonings favored along the northwest coastline of Africa in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Thus we have:

Osso Buco Maghreb.
See Abbreviations, if needed 
Serves four

4 veal shanks, each tied around their circumference with butcher string to hold their shape
2T of baharat or ras-el-hanout powdered spice mixtures (Moroccan), or S/P is you don't have, but . . .
1/2t of turmeric and cumin, each
A pinch of saffron
1t of ginger and sweet paprika, each
12 grinds of pepper corn
1t+ salt
A sachet of parsley and cilantro, with stems
2 large red onions, diced
4 pickled lemons, quartered and deseeded
3-4C chicken stock or broth
1C red wine
1C green and black olives, pitted
1. Preheat oven to 350F
2. Dry rub the shanks with baharat, ras-el-hanout or S/P
3. In a large Dutch oven, brown the shanks well in a little of the EVOO,
then remove and set aside
4. Add the rest of the EVOO and sweat the onions to translucent
5. Add the spices, heat them for awhile and then add two cups stock and the wine
6. BTB, reduce heat and then return the shanks to the pot
7. Add the sachet and the lemon quarters
8. Add more stock to a level about 3/4 up the sides of the shanks
9. BTB, then turn off the heat
10. Cover the Dutch oven and place it in the preheated oven
11. Set the timer for 2 hours
12. Remove the Dutch oven to the stove top's large burner
13. Check the shanks for doneness, they should be falling off the bone
14. With a spatula (not tongs), very carefully remove the shanks to a shallow pan
and place it in the now turned off oven
15. Skim the braising liquid of the fat hugging the sides of the Dutch oven
16. Bring the braising liquid to boil and reduce to make sauce (if there is not enough
liquid to reduce by half, add water not stock and then BTB to reduce
17. A la minute, add the olives
18. Place osso buco shanks on heated plates and dress with the sauce
19. Serve with roasted or sauteed veggies and/or with couscous

We had these rather uniquely textured and seasoned rack of pork ribs in Milwaukee over Thanksgiving two years ago.  My niece prepared them expertly.  For New Years dinner, I got out her recipe (which came from Bon Appetit) and did them.  Braising the ribs (Bon Appetit wrongly called it roasting) lends a soft tenderness to the rack that cannot be done on the grill.  The original recipe called for grilling the racks of ribs fter two hours of braising to reheat them and to impart a glaze to the barbecue sauce. Try it if you like, but the braised ribs are already falling off the bone and moving the racks to the grill without breaking them will prove very difficult. It's not worth it. Instead, finish racks uncovered for the last half hour to dry them out a bit and make them table sauce receptive. 

Here is my version and complete rewrite of the recipe:
Braised Racks of Pork Ribs
See Abbreviations, if needed 
Ribs:  (General Rule:  Allow five ribs per person)

2      racks of baby back pork ribs

Dry Rub:
1T     salt 2T     brown sugar
2t       dry mustard
2t       thyme
1t       ginger, fresh grated or dry ground
½ t     cinnamon, fresh grated or dry ground
½ t     cayenne

Pan Roasting Mixture:
1       onion, sliced
1        cinnamon stick, broken
1T      ginger, freshly grated 2C+   apple cider (not apple cider vinegar)

Barbecue Sauce:
½ C    brown sugar
1 oz    butter, melted
¼ C    bourbon
¼ C    rice wine or white wine vinegar
2T    Dijon mustard 

1. Remove silver skin from back of ribs, trim off excess fat and set aside
2. Prepare dry rub by mixing all ingredients together in a small bowl
3. Hand rub the ribs with the dry rub, cover and chill for a couple hours 4. Spray or rub sheet pan or roasting pan surface with EVOO
5. Place roasting pan mixture (less apple cider) in pan 
6. Lay ribs in pan meat side down, then add apple cider to cover pan bottom by a quarter inch
7. Cover pan with foil and place in preheated 325F oven (FYI: covered is braising--uncovered is roasting)
8. Place sauce ingredients in a pan and heat gently to simmer and set aside
9. Braise until ribs are very tender and meat is pulling away from the ribs (about 2 to 2.5 hours). Remove cover for the last half hour
10  Remove pan from oven, uncover and let stand until grill is hot (1 hour max)
11. Carefully remove rack of ribs from roasting pan onto serving platter
12. Cut racks with a sharp serrated knife into one or two bone servings
13. Reheat barbecue sauce and serve as a side. 

This is Such a Good Idea, I'll Post it Again

I opened another big (32 oz) jar of capers this evening and again dumped them all into a colander, cold sprayed them, washed out the jar, filled it with one part of rice vinegar, scooped the capers back into the jar and then topped the jar off with 3 parts of tap water. Try it next time and taste the capers and not the salt!

It's hard to pass up the olive bar at your favorite super market. The selection is too hard to resist with olives green and black, pitted, stuffed or unstuffed along with mini onions, mushrooms and maybe an artichoke heart or two. All swimming in oil. We learn from Tom Mueller, in the book profiled below, that the oil used in the olive bar selections is probably refined olive oil or, at best, low grade EVOO. So here's what to do:

Having spooned your selections at the olive bar into a deli container, bring them home and dump them all in a colander. Spray wash them thoroughly with luke warm water and put them in a fresh container. Then add a tablespoon or so of your best EVOO. Toss and enjoy. You will taste a big difference. So too, I found about a year ago with capers. I get the big jar from Costco, dump them into the colander, wash off the inegar, place them into a cleaned jar and then add little water and some rice vinegar. Result: The capers are remarkably less salty. You can actually taste them!

UPDATE: Beautiful Non-stick Iron Skillets From Japan


Last year, I hesitated to write about this pan since getting one was a bit of a hassle. While the pan cost $75US, shipping added another $50US. That put it in the price range of All Clad and Le Crueset, which is fine since it's functionally as good if not better than what they offer and far more attractive. The pans are made by Iwachu, a company in Japan well known, worldwide, for their cast iron tea pots and kettles. Iwachu has been casting iron for centuries. I read about their "omelet pan" earlier, lost the reference, then saw it again and decided to get it from an Amazon like company in Japan called Rakuten Global Market that has a vendor that carries it. They can be found at

Ah, but now Amazon carries Iwachu. And the pan is available in two sizes" 9.5 inch and 8.5 inch for $101US and $78US (about 20% less than if ordered from Rakuten).

About the pan: At 9.5 inches across, it is of medium heavy cast iron with fine design lines--beautifully shaped with a long graceful handle and sloping cavity walls about 2 inches deep at the far edge and little more shallow at the near. It is so designed to promote the flipping of an omelet, which it does nicely. The surface is treated in a manner like Le Crueset cast iron, with the result that not much sticks to it. The 8.5 inch pan is identical--just smaller. The larger pan is best to brown steaks and chops when done sous vide; for three-egg omelets or scrambled eggs and for grilled cheese sandwiches. The smaller one is handy to fry two eggs or a hamburger or to warm up a leftover of any sort. And, since cast iron pans enjoy an oven visit now and then, both sized pans work great for an oven-finished frittata or baked corn bread.

There are other cast iron pans in the house by Lodge, Griswold and Le Crueset, but the Iwachus are, by far, the most attractive and versatile cast iron pans I have ever used.


A Tomato Amuse-Bouche

After reading and reviewing Extra Virginity (see below), I ordered two bottles of Agrumato--the lemon pressed EVOO (again see below). Great stuff! Now what to do with it? Here's a suggestion:

1. Find good tasting cherry tomatoes--no easy task but essential for this dish. 2. Have them at ambient temperature and slice each in half and arrange all on a work surface cut side up. 3. Take a pinch of sea salt and carefully, by hand, drop three or four grains on each tomato half. 4. Repeat with a few bits of freshly ground black pepper. 5. Then a few flakes of finely chopped fresh basil. 6. Then a few white bits of grated Parmigiano Reggiano. 7. With all that done, drizzle three or four drops of the Agrumato Lemon EVOO. (All in moderation: not too much of any one ingredient.) 8. Gather up portions and place in nice small bowls, as shown above. Serve with a small fork. Before seating your guests at table.

Now, quite obviously, one could add the above ingredients to a big bowl, toss in the tomato halves and be done with it. You would then have a tomato salad. Done my way you have consistent, perfectly seasoned, dressed tomato halves, specially prepared and contrived to amuse your guests and invigorate their palates. The very definition of an amuse-bouche.



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